Glass is usually divided into oxide glass and non-oxide glass according to the main components.
There are few types and quantities of non-oxide glass in glass bottles, mainly chalcogenide glass and halide glass. The anions of chalcogenide glass are mostly sulfur, selenium, tellurium, etc. The glass bottle can cut off short-wavelength light and pass yellow, red light, and near and far infrared light. It has low resistance and has switching and memory characteristics. Glass bottle halide glass has low refractive index and low dispersion, and is mostly used as optical glass.
Oxide glass is divided into silicate glass, borate glass, phosphate glass and so on. Silicate glass refers to the glass whose basic component is SiO2, which has many varieties and wide applications.
Usually according to the different content of SiO2 in glass, alkali metal and alkaline earth metal oxide in glass bottle, it is divided into:
①Quartz glass. SiO2 content is greater than 99.5%, low thermal expansion coefficient, high temperature resistance, good chemical stability, ultraviolet and infrared light transmission, high melting temperature, high viscosity, and difficult molding. It is mostly used in semiconductors, electric light sources, glass bottle light guide communications, lasers and other technologies and optical instruments.
②High silica glass. SiO2 content is about 96%, its properties are similar to quartz glass.
③ Soda lime glass. Mainly SiO2 content, 15% Na2O and 16% CaO, its low cost, easy to shape, suitable for large-scale production of glass bottles, its output accounts for 90% of practical glass. Tinted glass bottles can be used to make glass jars, flat glass, utensils, light bulbs, etc.
④ Lead silicate glass. The main components are SiO2 and PbO, which have a unique high refractive index and high volume resistance, and have good wettability with metals. They can be used to manufacture bulbs, vacuum tube stems, crystal glassware, flint optical glass, etc. Lead glass containing a lot of PbO can block X-rays and gamma rays
⑤ Aluminosilicate glass. With SiO2 and Al2O3 as the main components, it has a high softening deformation temperature and is used to make discharge bulbs, high-temperature glass thermometers, chemical combustion tubes and glass fibers.
⑥Borosilicate glass. With SiO2 and B2O3 as the main components, it has good heat resistance and chemical stability. It is used to make cooking utensils, laboratory instruments, metal welding glass, etc. Borate glass is mainly composed of B2O3, has a low melting temperature and can resist corrosion by sodium vapor.